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The following publications are directly linked to the projects EMRP HLT01 Ears and EMPIR 15HLT03 Ears II:

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Effects of very high-frequency sound and ultrasound on humans. Part II: A double-blind randomized provocation study of inaudible 20-kHz ultrasound

Author(s):M.D. Fletcher, S.D: Lloyd Jones, B. Lineton, P.R. White, C.N. Dolder, T. G. Leighton, B. Lineton
Journal:The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 144(4), 2511-2520
Abstract:Various adverse symptoms resulting from exposure to very high-frequency sound (VHFS) and ultrasound (US) have previously been reported. This study aimed to establish whether these symptoms are experienced under controlled laboratory conditions and are specific to VHFS/US. To do this, participants were exposed to VHFS/US (at frequencies between 13.5 and 20 kHz and sound pressure levels between 82 and 92 dB) and to a 1 kHz reference stimulus, both at 25 dB above their hearing threshold. The VHFS/US and reference stimuli were presented 4 times, each time for 3 min, during which participants performed a sustained attention task, rated their symptom severity, and had their galvanic skin response (GSR) measured to assess their level of anxiety. Prior to exposure, participants were assigned either to a symptomatic or an asymptomatic group, based on their prior history of symptoms that they attributed to VHFS/US. In both groups, overall discomfort ratings were higher in the VHFS/US condition than the reference condition. In the symptomatic group only, difficulty concentrating and annoyance were also rated higher in the VHFS/US than the reference condition. No difference between the two stimulus conditions was seen in performance on the attention task or on average GSRs for either group. VC 2018 Acoustical Society of America.

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