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The following publications are directly linked to the projects EMRP HLT01 Ears and EMPIR 15HLT03 Ears II:

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Measurements of ultrasonic deterrents and an acoustically branded hairdryer: Ambiguities in guideline compliance

Author(s):C.N. Dolder, M.D. Fletcher, S.D: Lloyd Jones, B. Lineton, S.R. Dennison, M. Symmonds, P.R. White, T. G. Leighton
Journal:The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 144, 2565 (2018)
Abstract:Acoustic radiation from three commercial pest deterrents and two hair dryers were measured in an anechoic chamber. The deterrents were chosen because the frequency range at which they emit the most energy is either in the very high-frequency sound band (11.2–17.8 kHz) or the ultrasound band (greater than 17.8 kHz). These are sources that may be heard by a subset of the general population, with the young typically having better high frequency sensitivity. A hairdryer reported to increase the frequency of the motor noise above the audible hearing range was compared with a standard hairdryer. The outputs of the deterrents are compared against six international regulations and guidelines for audible and ultrasound exposure. Multiple ambiguities in the application of these guidelines are discussed. These ambiguities could lead to a device being considered as in compliance despite unconventionally high levels. Even if a device measured here meets a guideline, actual exposures can exceed those taken here and may therefore breach guidelines if the listener is closer to the device or reflections increase the exposure level. VC 2018 Acoustical Society of America.

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