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The following publications are directly linked to the projects EMRP HLT01 Ears and EMPIR 15HLT03 Ears II:

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Frequency bands for ultrasound, suitable for the consideration of its health effects

Author(s):F. Duck, T. G. Leighton
Journal:The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 144, 2490 (2018)
Abstract:It is proposed that the ultrasound frequency spectrum should be divided into three bands in order to facilitate a more rational assessment of its health effects. Whilst statement of the frequencies at the borders of these bands facilitates their definition, it is recognized that these observables vary continuously with frequency and consequently these border frequencies should not be used to rule out the possibility of a given effect occurring. The lowest band, US(A), lies between 17.8 and 500 kHz. In this band acoustic cavitation and its associated forces form the dominant process resulting in biological effects in liquids and soft tissues, whereas health effects from airborne ultrasound have been reported but are far less researched. In the middle band, US(B), between 500 kHz and 100 MHz, temperature rise in tissues becomes the most important biological effect of exposure. The highest band, US(C), covers frequencies above 100 MHz, for which the radiation force becomes an increasingly important biophysical mechanism. A justification for the selection of 17.8 kHz in preference to any other threshold for the lower frequency limit for ultrasound is given.

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